“The way to gain power, is to save power.”

             Ta Hui


A significant amount of research is accumulating that documents an impressive array of positive effects from meditation.

I’m skeptical. I meditate a lot, but I’m still grumpy and forgetful. Not a very good advertisement for meditation.

Now, when I’m asked what meditation has done for me, I can declare that if I didn’t meditate, I’d probably be an axe-murderer with Alzheimer’s.

Seriously, though, people nowadays can’t see the value of anything that doesn’t produce some tangible results. However, when it comes to meditation, such physical and mental benefits are only side effects. It’s unlikely that taking up meditation to lengthen telomeres and live longer, or the many other benefits researchers have discovered, is sufficient to provide the degree of motivation needed to continue the practice over the long haul.

The real benefit of meditation is intangible, even spiritual or religious — except that it doesn’t require any particular set of beliefs. It can, with a little tweaking, fit into just about any belief system because it goes directly to the source of all religion. Thus it has been called true religion. It appeals most to those with a sincere desire to know what this life is, who we are, and where we come from.

Meditation can also be completely secular and non-theistic, which is one reason it has become popular with some scientists and psychologists. It employs an openness and a clarity of observation that is very similar to the scientific method. But instead of only observing external phenomena, meditation entails self-observation of internal phenomena as well.

Despite all the recent attention meditation has received, the general public in the West is still largely unaware of the refined meditation technologies and the vast body of literature, dating back to prehistory, that developed in the East, particularly in India, China and Tibet.

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Holding the breath. Tea hut, Santa Cruz Mountains, 1985

This won’t be an attempt to present a comprehensive overview of all the various meditation practices. Instead it is just some of what I have learned in my own experience from a lifetime of practicing and studying meditation.

POSTURE

Meditation can be reduced to one sentence — just sit in the correct posture (there are several) until you remember who you really are.

Researchers have found that “Body postures that convey competence and power (“power posing”) – even for as little as two minutes — changes our testosterone and cortisol levels, increases our appetite for risk, causes us to perform better… and generally configures our brains to cope well in stressful situations.”

The classic pose assumed in meditation has to be the ultimate power pose. I often hear people say that meditation posture is not important, that they meditate lying down in bed or on the couch. All I can say is that I meditate in bed and on the couch too, but I also meditate in the prescribed posture and it simply works better. It’s actually easier in the long run.

Neuroscientists are discovering what yogis have known all along — that what is done with the body can have the same effect on us as thoughts and emotions. For instance, what we do with our facial muscles, such as smiling, triggers positive responses in our body chemistry, even if we’re not actually happy about something. When we are calm we breath slowly and deeply, and if we’re upset, breathing slowly and deeply has a calming effect. Likewise sitting upright, rather than slumped or lying down, stimulates physiological responses that produce vigor and awareness.

When aiming for the correct meditation posture, the most important point is for the spine to be straight. This is accomplished by emphasizing the natural forward and backward curves of the upright spine, without leaning to either side.

If you rock forward and back again, pushing the butt out slightly, you can feel the natural curve of the lower back. Then, pulling the chin in, you’ll notice the chest expand, the lungs open up and the breath (always through the nose) slow down and deepen. The crown of the head rises up towards the ceiling as if pulled by an invisible rope.

When the shoulders and arms are relaxed downwards and the elbows are pulled slightly forward, the arms make a large flat circle around the torso with the hands resting lightly on the lap or upper foot.

The posture doesn’t need to be exaggerated. It should be relaxed and comfortable. It can be checked occasionally during the meditation, especially the chin, which tends to drift upward when lost in thought, or downward when sleepy.

THE FULL LOTUS

For most of us, to be able to sit comfortably in the full-lotus, with both legs crossed over the tops of the thighs, takes concerted effort over a considerable period of time. For many it is impossible.

Fortunately, the basic ingredients of the full lotus are attainable in several other meditation poses.

Whatever pose is taken, the spine should be straight, in its natural, upright position, so that the weight of the body doesn’t pull on muscles and ligaments, but instead rests lightly, directly downwards. Rocking forward and from side to side when first assuming the posture, balances and centers the body on the spine.

The position should also be stable and firm, which is what the locked legs in the full lotus, with both knees firmly on the floor, accomplishes.

HALF LOTUS

Sitting in the half-lotus, or even quarter-lotus, with only one leg on top of the other, are also stable poses, as long as both knees are on the floor. Even seasoned meditators are likely to use the half-lotus when sitting for long periods of time. Alternating which leg is on top with each meditation period takes pressure off the knees and balances the body.

The only way to get the knees accustomed to sitting in the half or full lotus is to sit that way repeatedly — gradually and patiently extending the duration. My experience is that sitting crossed legged on the floor is actually good for the knees. What is dangerous is to get into it too abruptly, rather than gradually.

For sitting on the floor, a “zafu,” (a round meditation pillow filled with kapok) is usually necessary, along with a “zabuton” (a large flat pad filled with cotton batting) underneath. I’ve used a tightly folded-up blanket for a zafu on top of a rectangular sleeping bag folded in half. The point is to raise the butt up enough so that the knees can rest comfortably on the floor, which should be padded.

EASY POSE

The “easy pose” with the lower legs loosely crossed in front of the body, and knees sticking up in the air, is unstable and not recommended. It encourages the body to curl forwards, putting pressure on muscles that support the spine. I wince when I see ads, which have been appearing since meditation became trendy, that show attractive models sitting in the easy pose.

However, a friend in his seventies (like myself) started out meditating in the easy pose, and gradually went to the quarter lotus and was finally able, after a year or two of perseverance, to sit comfortably in the half lotus.

THE KNEELING POSE

The kneeling position, or Japanese “seiza,” is a good, stable posture.

In order to sit comfortably kneeling for long periods the butt must be raised up off the backs of the feet. A zafu set on its side between the feet can be used, but eventually most seiza sitters prefer to use a special little “meditation bench” the right size and angle to support a firm posture.

SITTING IN A CHAIR

I’ve had considerable experience sitting in chairs when my knees were injured (from other activities). A firm, straight-backed chair is best. A small pillow can be used to support the lower back in the correct position — or even better, sit with the back not resting against anything. I use an old plastic milk crate turned upside down, with a meditation cushion (zafu) on top so the thighs are parallel to the floor. The zafu can be placed conveniently inside the crate for portability.

Sitting in a chair, the posture can still be stable and upright, with the chin in, the spine naturally balanced, and the shoulders relaxed downward. Instead of the knees, both feet should rest firmly on the floor.

Sitting upright on a chair, with the hands resting downwards on the thighs is the ancient Egyptian posture for meditation.

HAND POSITION

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The hands, like the rest of the body, should be set into position and held for the duration of the sitting.

I employ the “cosmic mudra,” with the back of the left hand on the right palm and thumbs barely touching to form a small circle just below the navel. At first it feels awkward, but when it becomes familiar, it reflects the general level of relaxation in the entire body.

An easier hand position to hold is with the back of the right hand resting against the left palm, with the left thumb held in the palm of the right hand by the right thumb.

Placing the hands on the knees is also fine. Sitting in the full lotus, the hands resting on the knees, arms straight to form a triangle, with palms facing up and the tips of the thumbs and forefingers lightly touching, is a classic yoga pose.

OPEN YOUR EYES

Meditate with the eyes open, looking slightly downwards. It’s often said that this is to prevent falling asleep, or daydreaming and visions, which might be more likely with the eyes closed.

I think there’s more to it than that.

With the eyes open and relaxed, but not focused on anything in particular, we see the surrounding space as if in a round mirror. This helps clear the mind of nagging thoughts and internal noise, and makes it easier to go into Samadhi, the clear, global awareness that leads to insight.

The eyes may also be “fixed” on a small spot, usually about three feet away and slightly downward. This tethers the attention and develops concentration. For years I meditated with eyes fixed on a small shiny object on a dark wooden wall, all the while practicing concentration on the breath.

Visualizations can still be done with the eyes open and relaxed. When I experimented with shamanistic journeying I was easily able to get into self-propelled visions while sitting in meditation with eyes open, without drumming or other assistance.

In some traditions they face a wall a few feet away, but with practice it’s possible to face almost any scene without getting drawn into it. I usually face out into the room and look slightly downward towards the floor about three or four feet away, through “soft,” half open eyes.

Most people think meditators always sit with their eyes closed. On family vacations I liked taking the kids to the swimming pool. I’d place my meditation pillow on a folded towel in a discreet location with a good view of the pool and sit and meditate while watching the children play in the pool. When I mentioned what I was doing, my sister-in-law became concerned that I wasn’t really watching the kids. “That was the only thing I was doing,” I explained, “unlike most of the other parents around the pool who were yakking or reading.”

WHEN TO MEDITATE

Sitting Meditation can be practiced anytime it is convenient, but for most of us, the first thing in the morning is best. At that time our stomachs are still empty and the concerns of the day have not yet engulfed us. Sitting in meditation, even for just a few minutes, gets the day off to a great start. The last thing before getting into bed at night is also a good time, as is just before meals. The important thing is to do it at the same time every day so that it eventually becomes a comfortable habit.

If you can’t sleep at night, try meditating. I often wake up in the middle of the night and can’t get back to sleep. It’s a good time to meditate, so I force myself to get up out of bed and sit until I’m feeling relaxed and sleepy. If I’ve been meditating enough, I can quiet my mind and relax my body sufficiently to fall asleep almost anywhere, anytime.

I know people who only meditate with a group or when on retreat. That is probably better than no meditation at all, but it is not nearly as effective as consistent daily practice. Unless you plan to spend your entire life living in a practice community or monastery, if you’re really serious about meditation, I urge to you make the effort necessary to establish a personal, daily practice.

NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF MEDITATION

Meditation is very powerful and like any powerful practice it can be dangerous for some. If you notice adverse effects such as anxiety and depression, stop the practice immediately. Meditation can make changes to the brain that can affect some people very negatively and take years to recover from. A meditation teacher might tell you to just work through it but everyone is different and even the most experienced teacher hasn’t seen all the possible outcomes.

Some folks start right out with a 10 day vipassana retreat or a week-long zen sesshin. That is very risky and for a few people it can cause severe problems that last for years. Work into it very gradually and carefully.

For most of us meditation is beneficial but it’s not for everyone and it’s not a cure-all.

HOW LONG?

I frequently used to decide I’d start getting up really early in order to meditate for a longer time. It always seemed like a great idea the night before, but I’d find myself in an entirely different frame of mind when the alarm would go off in the frigid dark before dawn.

Attempting too much at first is a common mistake.

Meditation should be natural and enjoyable, so that instead of wasting energy in a vain struggle, we can apply ourselves wholly to the matter at hand. It’s better to meditate only ten minutes consistently every morning than to attempt more than is comfortable and give up before having even made a beginning.

A timer can eliminate the need to look at a clock. The length of time can be gradually increased once meditation has become a habit.

It’s said that it takes two months to establish something as a habit. For decades I meditated twice a day, first thing in the morning and last thing at night, for the length of time it took an incense stick to burn down (about half an hour).

In some Tibetan traditions they meditate for short periods throughout the day. This can fit nicely into work situations, where regular breaks are recommended to refresh the body and mind. A short meditation is especially beneficial at such times. It’s said that after awhile the numerous little meditations merge with other activities into one continuous meditation.

WALKING MEDITATION

When I first started meditating seriously I was inspired by the Buddha’s legendary vow to not move from his spot under the protective cover of a fig tree until he realized enlightenment. I’d get into the full lotus, grit my teeth, and force myself to remain still, despite increasing discomfort. Eventually I’d remember there was something more important to do — like cleaning the oven.

It was a great relief to finally discover that it was OK to alternate periods of sitting with walking, while still remaining on the same general spot.

Sitting too long without getting up is unhealthy. Alternating sitting and walking allows one to meditate longer. The meditation method being practiced, such as watching the breath, can be continued during a period of easy walking.

When practicing walking meditation the hands are usually held against the solar plexus, with the elbows out and forearms parallel to the floor, with eyes lowered.

I like to sit for 25 minutes and walk for 5 minutes, which fits nicely into hourly segments, as well as being easy on the body. Walking in a circle clockwise around the meditation area is traditional, as is back and forth on the same pathway.

Some Theravada Buddhist monks sit for one hour and walk for one hour, for half of each day, year round.

Walking at a normal pace is most popular, although some traditions even walk at a brisk pace. The most meditative method is to walk really slow, with an in-breath upon lifting a foot slightly and an out-breath when placing it half a step forward — which also works well when the space is limited.

By alternating sitting and walking it’s possible to meditate almost indefinitely. Seven and ten day retreats consist of 8 to 12 hours of sitting and walking meditation a day, with gung-ho participants continuing to sit through the night.

WHERE

Meditation/tea hut, Mendocino Coast 1994

Once we are proficient in meditation it can be done almost anywhere, but at first it’s best to sit in the same place consistently.

In many traditions, such as Thai Forest Buddhism, meditation huts, or “Kuti,” are set in isolated spots for solo practice. I built myself a small hut/teahouse, that currently sits in a secluded area nearby, but can be disassembled and moved if need be.

Meditation can also be practiced outside when the weather is good. Near the base of a tree or on the banks of a stream are good places, as the ground naturally slopes down, making a meditation pillow unnecessary.

I especially like to discretely meditate while on an airplane or bus. Something about the external movement makes it easier to find that stillness within.

ALTARS

My meditation hut has a simple alcove with a bamboo vase in which I keep fresh flowers. Flowers improve the whole feeling and mood. I also have a small bowl of sand for incense sticks on one side and an antique bell on the other, which I ring to begin and end meditation periods when I’m sitting with others.

Some practitioners get very creative and include various offerings, pictures of teachers and loved ones, or other items with personal meanings. If one has particular religious beliefs they can be expressed in the altar. .

An altar is not necessary but it can support one’s practice and serve to promote a peaceful and devotional environment.

GETTING BACK INTO THE BODY

Some folks like to talk about “out-of-the-body experiences,” as if they were actually “in” their bodies the rest of the time. In reality, most of us spend far more time adrift in mental activity, such as inner dialogues and story lines, than fully inhabiting our bodies and senses. With all the new information technology the mental clutter has increased exponentially.

Returning to the body is returning to the present moment. Tripping out in repetitive, linear patterns of thought, only takes one further away from this present reality and is not conducive to inner equilibrium and peace, much less enlightenment and liberation.

A simple method for staying in the body, is to pay attention to physical sensations, or how it “feels” at the moment. This is the technique used in Burmese Buddhist meditation to calm the tendency towards discursive mental activity (monkey mind).

Periodically checking the posture and overall relaxation of the body serves to return the mind to the present. Devoting bare attention to the surrounding sounds and the light coming in through the eyes also grounds the mind in the moment.

In Soto Zen the word “just” is employed — as in just eating, just walking, just sitting, and so forth. A lot of us are so overstimulated mentally that to “just” eat lunch, without doing something else, like reading or talking, has become very difficult and boring.

To “just sit” looks simple and easy, but proves to be very difficult in practice.

CALMING THE MIND

The excitement of an overly active mind is the main impediment to the calmness and clarity necessary for deep meditation. Most everyone is initially aghast at the shear volume and busyness of their inner dialogue when they first begin to observe what goes on in their minds moment to moment in meditation — thoughts coming like train cars, one after another. This is where many simply give up, saying “My mind is just too active for meditation.”

FAITH IN THE TRUE MIND

The natural, original condition of the mind is clarity and openness — like empty space. I think that everyone instinctively knows this, but it is lost under the weight of habitual mental patterns that are acquired over time.

In theory at least, we are free to think whatever we want, or not to think anything at all, but instead most of us are at the mercy of reactions and attachments to the impermanent, temporary circumstances of life.

Realization of our originally open and clear nature is normally the result of long and dedicated practice of meditation, but it can also be taken up at the beginning of practice — even if at first the “faith” aspect of it is all there is to it.

This mind, our true self, is broad and open, like a boundless, empty field, where everything, the entire movie, constantly arises and disappears — or like a clear mirror in which passing images are reflected, without affecting the mirror itself.

Our true mind is unimpeded and effortless. It is beyond dualistic discriminations such as past and future, self and other, existence and nonexistence, transitory and eternal, and so forth. It transcends all of the conceptual models that are used to organize reality and which have come to be accepted as real, rather than recognized for the mental constructions they are.

This calm, open awareness is “samadhi.” In Patanjali’s Yogic Aphorisms, samadhi is referred to as being “free of all mental modifications.” When mental modifications do arise, they are allowed to go back into clarity and emptiness, without attaching or reacting to them. When all mental activity finally winds down and ceases, even if only momentarily, it stimulates profound intuitive experiences.

So remembrance and faith in this inherent, originally clear, True Mind is conducive not only to calmness and concentration, but to realization and enlightenment as well.

MEDITATION AS MEDICINE

Like some medicines, meditation doesn’t always taste good going down. It can be difficult and boring, even painful. But like medicine, if you just take it everyday as directed, it goes to work in you without your even being aware of it, until eventually you’re healed without having to even think about it. This is an important point.

If you find yourself unmotivated and resistant to meditation, even though you want to practice, it is likely because you are overthinking it, trying to fit it into some scenario or expectation of how you think it should be, rather than having faith in it and letting it be what it is at that particular time.

While simply staying open and present with whatever occurs is the ultimate meditation, sometimes, especially at the beginning of meditation or when resistance sets in, it is better to “do” something concrete. This is meditation with an object as opposed to meditation without an object. An object of meditation gives the mind something to engage with, and is designed to lead into meditation without an object, which is ultimately the clear and open mind of samadhi.

WATCHING THE BREATH

The breath is the most frequently used object of meditation to concentrate and focus the mind. Breathing should always be through the nose, unless some special exercise is involved.

It’s often recommended to breath just with the abdomen, but I think that has been oversold and a natural, “complete” breath is best, with the abdomen and the chest expanding and contracting in unison.

Some instructions recommend pressing the tongue against the roof of the mouth to still discursive thought by suppressing imperceptible movement of the tongue. That might be a holdover from an earlier yogic practice of lengthening the tongue through special exercises until it could curl back down the top of throat to slowly close off the breath. That can induce a state of hibernation, it’s claimed, wherein one could be buried for days and survive. Needless to say, it’s not really necessary to accomplish that feat. But it’s also said that in some kinds of very deep meditation the breath almost ceases completely.

In most meditation instructions the breath is to be observed without interfering. However, in my experience, it’s impossible, strictly speaking, to just “observe” the breath without interfering with it. As soon as one applies consciousness to the breath it comes under conscious control and if the breaths are long or short becomes a matter of volition. The conscious and unconscious breath are two very separate systems (thankfully), so that even under complete anesthesia the lungs continue to operate quite well.

This deep connection with the mind makes the breath as an object of meditation especially useful in relaxing and clearing the mind. Constantly bringing the attention back to the breath is an effective way to reign in mental wandering and excitement. This has been compared to tending an ox. When the ox wanders off, a gentle tug on the rope that’s connected to its nose-ring brings it right back. When we notice our mind wandering off we can pull it back by returning the attention to the breath going in and out of the nose.

COUNTING THE BREATHS

An effective way to calm and focus the mind is to count the breaths as they come in and out. Counting the breaths is especially good for beginners, who are likely to feel overwhelmed by an unending torrent of mental activity when they first begin to observe what actually goes on in their minds during meditation. That, and the frustration that often accompanies such observation, can be alleviated when the task of counting the breath is undertaken.

Doing nothing turns out to be more difficult than imagined. Counting the breaths gives one something tangible to do, while developing power of concentration.

The easiest way to count the breath is to silently say “one” on the inbreath and “two” on the outbreath, “three” on the inbreath and “four” on the outbreath (odd in, even out), and on up to the count of “ten” on the out-breath, and then start over at one again. This will calm and focus the mind early in any sitting, and is very useful, even for experienced meditators.

At first this is not so easy. Thoughts intrude and one loses track or ends up counting way past ten. That’s normal. The attention should just be pulled back to the breath, starting over with counting one to ten.

LENGTHENING THE OUTBREATH

A more advanced method of breath counting is to silently count only on the inbreath while counting to ten. The outbreath can in turn be extended, without forcing or exertion, by relaxing into it and letting go of everything else.

Lengthening the outbreath activates the parasympathetic nervous system, which in turn calms and relaxes all of the physiological systems, including the brain and mental activity.

This emphasis on the outbreath can be combined with a word or a question, silently spoken, such as “who?” — as in who hears, who sees, who is this, or who am I? This single, simple word (who?), combined with a prolonged outbreath, serves to turn the mind back on itself, bringing it into the present situation. There’s no need to think about it. Like a stone dropped into a still pool, it will send out ripples of insight. It’s a simple method, but it should not be underestimated.

“Om” is another word that has traditionally been silently combined with an extended outbreath, especially in India. Other words can also be used, but they should be simple to say and resonate peacefully within.

Whether using a word with the outbreath or simply relaxing into it, the counting can be dispensed with once the mind is sufficiently concentrated. Counting can get so automatic after an extended period that it is hard to shut off.

I like combining attention on the breath with attention to the light coming in through half-closed eyes. Something about concentration on those two things at once serves to calm mental and physical activity and induce samadhi.

Once the mind is sufficiently quiet, even attention on the breath can be abandoned, along with thoughts and sensations as they arise.

THE LAUGH OF ENLIGHTENMENT

A good way to end each meditation is with a long, hearty laugh.

Neuroscientific research has shown that laughter stimulates the secretion of chemicals that have a strong positive effect on mood and health. Surprisingly, laughter is just as effective when it’s completely artificial, without anything funny to provoke it.

Combining laughter with the thought of enlightenment, the ever-present, original, clear, open, nature of everything, is even more effective.

PRANAYAMA (BREATH CONTROL)

Traditional yogic breathing exercises can be incorporated into a meditation routine to arouse and focus energy — or simply as aids to relaxing and letting go of physical and mental tension. They are especially effective for calming an overactive mind.

THE CLEANSING BREATH

Normally most people breath with only about a third of their lungs, or even less. The remainder of the lungs accumulate toxins and other contaminants that eventually degrade the lungs, causing various health problems later on. A vigorous expulsion of the air in the lungs not only cleanses and detoxifies, but also stimulates and de-stresses the entire body/mind system. It is especially recommended for smokers or after exposure to dust or fumes, and for those with lung or breathing problems.

Not only is the cleansing breath a good way to start the day, it is an ideal way to begin each meditation. Simply breath out slowly and completely through the mouth while bending forward with the hands on the knees or on the floor in front of one’s seat. Tightening or pursing the lips while exhaling puts some additional pressure on the lungs, which opens up the multitude of tiny sacs that are essential to efficient use of the air and revitalization of the body.

Continue to exhale slowly and calmly until it seems that no more air will come out — then blow three short bursts to get every last bit of air expelled. Follow with a deep inhalation through the nose. Or, if one has the genetically inherited ability, breath in through a wet tongue rolled up like a straw, to sooth and heal the lungs with moisture.

To heighten the positive effect of the cleansing breath, imagine all the toxins, both physical and mental, being blown out with the outbreath, along with distracting thoughts and negative emotions — which is essentially what takes place with this simple breathing exercise.

ALTERNATE BREATHING

The yogic exercise of breathing in through one nostril and out through the other, with the thumb and ring finger to alternatively open and close each side of the nose, is traditionally used to calm the mind and purify the nerves. It also synchronizes the two hemispheres of the brain.

IMG_0580Tucking the forefinger (pointer), and the middle finger, into the palm of the right hand, with the ring finger and little finger sticking up, place the right thumb against the side of the right nostril to close it. Breath in through the open left nostril for the count of eight, hold for an instant, then swing the hand so the ring finger presses on the side of the left nostril to close it and the thumb lifts up off the right nostril. Breath out through the open right nostril for the count of sixteen. With the left nostril still closed, breath in for the count of eight through the right nostril. Hold for an instant while closing the right nostril with the thumb and taking the ring finger off the left nostril, then breath out for the count of sixteen through the left nostril. That is one round of alternate breathing. The count can be synchronized with the heartbeat which should become audible with the slower and deeper breathing.

Alternate breathing can also be done without using the fingers, just the mind, as long as both nostrils are completely clear and open, and one has practiced with the fingers first. I think this has a more powerful calming effect on the brain hemispheres and nerves. It can be checked using a mirror under the nostrils to see whether the air is actually alternating between the nostrils.

An even more advanced form of alternate breathing, with retention of the breath after each inhalation, necessitates the use of an anal and chin lock to force the energy down to the abdomen. It is said to be dangerous to undertake without a teacher.

THE ORGASM BREATH

This is softer version of the yogic “billows breath,” which I used to call the “eraser breath” because of its efficacy in clearing the mind of discursive thinking — at least temporarily.

The billows breath, which is often referred to as the “breath of fire” because of its use in arousing primordial energy, is a sustained period of vigorous, rapid outbreathing (through the nose), using only the abdominal muscles, like a billows, followed by a deep inbreath and retention of the breath for an extended period.

In the late sixties I was enthusiastically practicing hatha yoga everyday. Also, despite the many warnings that it is dangerous, I was a dedicated devotee of the billows breath — partly because the hyperventilation made me quite high.

It turned out to be dangerous in an unexpected fashion.

I was frequently doing various breathing exercises or chanting while driving. One day, speeding down a freeway in my old Volvo, I engaged in a vigorous round of “Bastrika,” or billows breath, after which I took a deep inhalation and applied the anal and chin “locks” to hold the breath in my navel chakra. The next thing I knew I was speeding backwards, going in the same direction, but along the shoulder of the freeway in a huge cloud of dust, as a family driving past looked on in astonishment.

So, to be safe, don’t attempt any of these exercises while driving.

Now, in my old age, I’ve toned it down a bit. The rapid belly-breathing irritates my lower intestinal tract, so I breath in normally using my chest as well, with both inhalations and exhalations equal — starting slowly, and gradually making the breathing deeper and more rapid, as if leading up to a sexual orgasm (visualization can be applied here if helpful), until finally reaching a crescendo of deep, rapid breathing, and then a huge, full, deep inhalation.

But no retention. Instead, after a slight pause, a long exhalation is let slowly out through the nostrils in a normal manner, resulting in a delicious feeling of release and calm. It has all of the advantages of the billows/eraser/fire breath, without any of the dangers.

DIRECTING AND VISUALIZING THE BREATH

The breath can be visualized, and even felt, going in and out of any part of the body it is directed to. In a popular Taoist exercise to circulate the energy of the breath, the inhalation is brought down the front of the body to the lower abdomen and the exhalation up the back to the crown of the head.

In progressive relaxation, the breath, especially the outbreath, is felt flowing in and out of each part of the body from the head to the feet, relaxing and soothing each region and organ it passes through.

Starting with the jaw, the in and outbreath is felt there, along with a relaxation and letting go of that area — next the ears, then the eyes and the brain are relaxed. Flowing on down and breathing in and out through each part, the neck, shoulders, arms and hands are relaxed, then the upper back and shoulder blades, the chest, heart and lungs with the vascular system, stomach and liver, down into the intestines, kidneys and bladder, to the lower back with the bones, spine and skeleton, then the stomach muscles along with one’s overall musculature, the sex organs with other glands going up spine, the buttocks, thighs, knees and lower legs — all the way to the feet, using the inbreath and an extended outbreath to relax each area in turn.

A more advanced method is to visualize and feel warm, soothing butter, melting and flowing from the top of the head over each part of the body, relaxing and healing as it fills the lower body.

~To be continued~